The Asianisation of Australia: volume 2, References



References


1. Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 19, 1995-96, AGPS, Canberra, 1997, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9; pp. 22-24, Table 2.10; pp. 37-38, Table 2.15.

2. Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9; pp. 22-24, Table 2.10; pp. 37-38, Table 2.15.
Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 12, 1981, AGPS, Canberra, 1982, pp. 38-50, Table 21; pp. 51-55, Table 22; pp. 60-63, Table 24.
Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. Australian Immigration: Consolidated StatisticsNumber 19, 1995-96, AGPS, Canberra, 1997, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9; pp. 22-24, Table 2.10; pp. 37-38, Table 2.15.

3. The White Russians were those who had opposed the Red (Communist) revolution in Russia in 1917, and - following their defeat - many migrated to China or Manchuria. In all, about 7000 eventually came to Australia. 5500 were evacuated from Shanghai, shortly before the fall of the Kuomintang (Nationalist) government, were held on a island of the Philippines under the auspices of the International Refugee Organisation; about a quarter of these later came to Australia. Also, after the end of the Korean War, the Chinese government decided that it no longer wanted the presence of these Russians and therefore encouraged them to leave the country; many of these came to Australia, under sponsorship of Australian residents.

Christa, Boris. "Russians", in: Jupp, James (general editor). The Australian People, Angus and Robertson, North Ryde, NSW, 1988, pp. 755-756.


Regarding the Indonesian-born (Dutch East Indies) Dutch, Henk Overberg says that "Birthplace statistics do not distinguish ethnic Dutch persons among those persons from the former Dutch East Indies who were repatriated to Australia during the Second World War, and after as a result of Indonesian independence. Estimates of the numbers of these people in Australia vary widely, but there were many thousands of ethnic Dutch living in Indonesia at the time of independence. The Empire Ex-Servicemen's Scheme, which ran from 1947 until 1955, consisted largely of Dutch nationals - of the 21,994 persons who arrived in Australia under this scheme, 16,830 were Dutch, the majority having come directly from Indonesia. Some of these would have been Dutch-born, others Indonesian-born."

Overberg, Henk. "Dutch", in: Jupp, James (general editor). The Australian People, Angus and Robertson, North Ryde, NSW, 1988, p. 356.

4. Macphee, Ian. "Australia's Migration Policy"(letter), The Bulletin, 18 May 1982, p. 10.

5. Shu, Jing; Khoo, Siew Ean; Struik, Andrew; and McKenzie, Fiona. Australia's Population Trends and Prospects 1993, AGPS, Canberra, 1994, pp. 35-37.

6. Richards, David. "Triads Move Into Melbourne Crime", The Bulletin 27 May 1980, p. 63.

7. Roberts, Greg. "Racket Blamed For Illegal Immigrants", The Age, 6 November 1992, p. 9.

8. Castles, Stephen. "The "New" Migration and Australian Immigration Policy", in: Inglis, Christine; Gunasekaran, S.; Sullivan, Gerard; and Wu, Chung-Tong (eds). Asians in Australia: The Dynamics of Migration and Settlement, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW, 1992, p. 70.

9. Blainey, Geoffrey. All For Australia, pp. 66-68.

10. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia, June 1985 (ABS catalogue no. 3401.0), ABS, Canberra, 1986, p. 7.

11. Millbank, Adrienne. Asian Immigration, Parliamentary Research Service (Department of the Parliamentary Library), Canberra, 1996 (Current Issues Brief 16; Last updated: 12 December 1996; Internet source: http://library.aph.gov.au/prs/pubs/cib/97cib16.htm), section headed "Source Countries".

12. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1996).

13. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1996); and "PMTR005A, Total Departures" (financial year 1996).

14. Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs: Research and Statistics Branch. Immigration Update, December Quarter 1996, DIMA, Canberra, 1997, p. 39.

15. Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs: Research and Statistics Branch. Immigration Update, March Quarter, p. 1; June Quarter, p. 1; September Quarter, p. 1; December Quarter, p. 1.

16. Note: Microfiche statistical tables PMTR005A and PMTR005B from the Australian Bureau of Statistics include Cyprus as part of Europe from Financial Year 1991 onwards (previously, Cyprus was included in Asia).

17. Price, C.A. "Greek Cypriots", in: Jupp, James (ed.) The Australian People, Angus and Robertson, North Ryde, NSW, 1988, p. 532.

18. Aubin, Tracey. "PM: Now Students Can Stay Forever", The Australian, 15 June 1990, p. 1-2.
Chamberlin, Paul. "Migrant Reunions at Risk", The Age, 20 June 1996, p. A4.
Easterbrook, Margaret. "Influx of Chinese Possible, Says Hand", The Age, 13 May 1992, p. 5.
Jaivin, Linda. "The Contradictions of Compassion", Australian Society, July 1990, p. 13.
Walsh, Kerry-Anne. "Chinese Feel the Squeeze", The Bulletin, 6 August 1996, pp. 12-13.
Walsh, Kerry-Anne. "Cracking the Chinese Puzzle", The Bulletin, 16 November 1993, p. 16.

19. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Migration Australia 1993-94, AGPS, 1995, Canberra, pp. 6-7, 38.

20. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1995).

21. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1995); and "PMTR005A, Total Departures" (financial year 1995).

22. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Overseas Arrivals and Departures (issue "Embargoed until 11:30 Thurs 22 August 1996"), Australian Government Publishing Service, (Canberra), 1996, pp. 12, 16.

23. Bennett. Your Rights 1988, p. 87.

24. Blainey. All For Australia, pp. 65-71.

25. Blainey. All For Australia, p. 69.

26. Blainey. All For Australia, p. 69.

27. Blainey. All For Australia, p. 69.

28. Blainey. All For Australia, pp. 69-70.

29. Blainey. All For Australia, pp. 70-71.

30. Price, Dr. Charles A. Ethnic Groups In Australia, Australian Immigration Research Centre, Canberra, (1989?), pp. 8-9.

31. Jenkins, David. "2001 Our Race Odyssey", The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 76.

32. Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research, Community Profiles, 1991 Census, Fiji Born, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, p. 1.
Cuthbertson, Sandy; Cole, Rodney (eds). Population Growth in the South Pacific Island States - Implications for Australia, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp.6-7.
The Far East and Australasia 1997 (Twenty-Eighth edition), Europa, London, 1997, p. 726.
India on the Fiji Crisis, XP Press, 1989, pp. 13-14 (p. 14 says "there are about 250 Indian nationals" in Fiji).

33. Ruddock, Philip (letter). "Figures May Mislead", Herald Sun, 31 October 1996, p. 20.

34. Legge, Kate. "Asian Intake Ought to be Watched: ANU Academic", The Age, 27 June 1985, p. 20.
Mackie, J.A.C. "On Asian Migration", The Sydney Morning Herald, 18 June 1985.

35. The Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Immigration Update: September Quarter 1995, AGPS, Canberra, c1995, p. 48.

36. The Bureau of Immigration Research: Department of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics: Number 15: 1988, AGPS, Canberra, c1989, p. 7.

37. The Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Immigration Update: September Quarter 1995, AGPS, Canberra, c1995, p. 48.

38. The Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Immigration Update: September Quarter 1995, AGPS, Canberra, c1995, p. 48.

39. 1959/60 - 1967/68 figures: Department of Immigration. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 2, AGPS, Canberra, 1968, pp. 57-60, Table 24.
1968/69 - 1972/73 figures: Department of Immigration. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 7, AGPS, Canberra, 1973, pp. 58-61, Table 24.
1973/74 - 1981/82 figures: Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 13, 1982, AGPS, Canberra, 1984, pp. 60-63, Table 24.
1982/83 - 1987/88 figures: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial year 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); and "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1988).
1988/89 - 1993/94 figures: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9.
1994/95 figures: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Immigration Update, September Quarter 1995, AGPS, Canberra, c1995, pp. 21-23, Table 1.13.
1995/96 - 1996/97 figures: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1996 to 1997).

1976/77 - 1996/97 figures confirmed by using:
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial years 1977 to 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1989); and "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1989 to 1997).

Note: A minor corrective adjustment of 109 has been made to the 1975/76 figures for the Permanent Arrivals (Settlers) table since the Oct. 1996 and Dec. 1996 editions of this publication.


40. Issues of Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics up to, and including, edition number 16, followed the Australian Bureau of Statistics' definition used for Settler status (refer to Settler Arrival statistics, with particular regard to the years 1982/83 - 1987/88). Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics from editions numbered 17 and 18 followed the Department of Immigration's definition used for Settler status (again - refer to Settler Arrival statistics, with particular regard to the years 1982/83 - 1987/88).

41. 1982/83 - 1983/84 figures: Bureau of Immigration and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 17, 1991-92, AGPS, Canberra, c1993, pp. 24-26, Table 2.9.
1984/85 - 1987/88 figures: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9.

42. 1959/60 - 1967/68 figures: Department of Immigration. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 2, AGPS, Canberra, 1968, pp. 57-60, Table 24.
1968/69 - 1972/73 figures: Department of Immigration. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 7, AGPS, Canberra, 1973, pp. 58-61, Table 24.
1973/74 - 1981/82 figures: Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 13, 1982, AGPS, Canberra, 1984, pp. 60-63, Table 24.
1982/83 - 1987/88 "Net Settler Gain" figures have been calculated by subtracting departing Former Settlers from Settler Arrivals:
a) 1982/83 - 1987/88 Settler Arrivals: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial year 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); and "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1988).
b) 1982/83 - 1987/88 departing Former Settlers: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial year 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Departures" (financial year 1984); and "PMTR009B, Total Departures" (financial years 1985 to 1988).
1988/89 - 1993/94 "Net Settler Gain" figures have been calculated by subtracting departing Former Settlers from Settler Arrivals:
a) 1988/89 - 1993/94 Settler Arrivals: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9.
b) 1988/89 - 1993/94 departing Former Settlers: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005B, Total Departures" (financial years 1989 to 1994). S:YB 11025-1173.
1994/95 figures are calculated by subtracting departing Former Settlers from Settler Arrivals:
1994/95 Settler Arrivals: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Immigration Update, September Quarter 1995, AGPS, Canberra, c1995, pp. 21-23, Table 1.13.
1994/95 departing Former Settlers: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005B, Total Departures" (financial year 1995).
1995/96 - 1996/97 figures are calculated by subtracting departing Former Settlers from Settler Arrivals:
1995/96 - 1996/97 Settler Arrivals: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1996 to 1997).
1995/96 - 1996/97 departing Former Settlers: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005B, Total Departures" (financial years 1996 to 1997).

1976/77 - 1996/97 figures confirmed by using:
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial years 1977 to 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); "PMTP009B, Total Departures" (financial year 1984); "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR009B, Total Departures" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1989 to 1997); and "PMTR005A, Total Departures" (financial years 1989 to 1997).

43. 1982/83 - 1987/88 "Net Settler Gain" figures have been calculated by subtracting departing Former Settlers from Settler Arrivals:
a) 1982/83 - 1987/88 Settler Arrivals:
1982/83 - 1983/84 figures: Bureau of Immigration and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 17, 1991-92, AGPS, Canberra, c1993, pp. 24-26, Table 2.9.
1984/85 - 1987/88 figures: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9.
b) 1982/83 - 1987/88 departing Former Settlers:
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial year 1983); "PMTP009B, Total Departures" (financial year 1984); and "PMTR009B, Total Departures" (financial years 1985 to 1988).

Although there are slight differences between the immigration figures produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Department of Immigration for the years 1982/83 - 1987/88, the emigration figures they use are the same. Table 2.17 "Permanent Departures By Region/Country Of Birth 1984-85 To 1993-94" in Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94 (pp. 42-43) shows that those "Permanent Departure" figures are exactly the same as the "Total Permanent" departure figures in the Australian Bureau of Statistics' unpublished statistics used in this document. The ABS's "Total Permanent" departure figures are derived from the totalling of two categories: "Former Settlers" and "Other Residents". As Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94 (pp. 42-43) only gives "Permanent Departure" figures as a whole, and does not include a "Former Settlers" sub- category, the 1982/83 - 1987/88 "Net Settler Gain (Department of Immigration figures)" table was calculated by subtracting the ABS's "Departures - Former Settlers" figures from the Department of Immigration's "Settler Arrivals" figures.

44. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial years 1977 to 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); "PMTP009B, Total Departures" (financial year 1984); "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR009B, Total Departures" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1989 to 1997); and "PMTR005A, Total Departures" (financial years 1989 to 1997).

45. Issues of Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics up to, and including, edition number 16, followed the Australian Bureau of Statistics' definition used for Settler status (refer to Settler Arrival statistics, with particular regard to the years 1982/83 - 1987/88). Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics from editions numbered 17 and 18 followed the Department of Immigration's definition used for Settler status (again - refer to Settler Arrival statistics, with particular regard to the years 1982/83 - 1987/88).

46. 1982/83 - 1983/84 figures: Bureau of Immigration and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 17, 1991-92, AGPS, Canberra, c1993, pp. 24-26, Table 2.9.
1984/85 - 1987/88 figures: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9, pp. 42-43, Table 2.17.

47. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial years 1977 to 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); "PMTP009B, Total Departures" (financial year 1984); "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR009B, Total Departures" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1989 to 1997); and "PMTR005A, Total Departures" (financial years 1989 to 1997).

48. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial years 1977 to 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); "PMTP009B, Total Departures" (financial year 1984); "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR009B, Total Departures" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1989 to 1997); and "PMTR005A, Total Departures" (financial years 1989 to 1997).

49. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial years 1977 to 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); "PMTP009B, Total Departures" (financial year 1984); "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR009B, Total Departures" (financial years 1985 to 1989); "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1989 to 1997); and "PMTR005A, Total Departures" (financial years 1989 to 1997).

50. Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics. Commonwealth Demography, (Commonwealth of Australia), Melbourne, issue: 1920, pp. 30-31 (Table 18a "The Nationalities of Persons, Males and Females, who Arrived in the Commonwealth of Australia during the Years 1914-1920" and Table 18b "The Nationalities of Persons, Males and Females, who Departed from the Commonwealth of Australia during the Years 1914-1920").
Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics. Australian Demography, (Commonwealth of Australia), Canberra, issue: 1934, p. 26 (Table 17i "Population - Net Migration according to Nationality or Race, 1921 to 1934").
Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics. Demography, (Commonwealth of Australia), Canberra, various issues: 1950, p. 34 (Table 35 "Migration: Net Migration according to Racial Origin, Australia", covering 1935-1947); 1948, p. 31 (Table 33 "Migration: Racial Origin of Persons who Arrived or Departed, Australia, Six months ended June, 1948"); 1950, p. 29 (Table 29 "Migration: Racial Origin of Persons who Arrived or Departed, Australia, 1949 and 1950"); 1951, p. 29; 1952, p. 23; 1953, p. 23; 1954, p. 23 (1951-1954 were all Table 28 "Overseas Migration: Racial Origin of Persons who Arrived or Departed, Australia"); 1955, p. 23; 1956, p. 23 (1955-1956 were both Table 30 "Overseas Migration: Racial Origin, Australia"); 1957, p. 22 (Table 29 "Overseas Arrivals and Departures: Racial Origin, Australia, 1957").

Note: A notation to the 1948 table states that "The particulars shown are directly comparable with those published in Bulletins prior to No. 64 under the heading of "Nationality or Race." The figures should not, however, be regarded as a completely accurate record of "Racial Origin" as they are based on the passenger's own statement as to race, which in many cases may express the country of his nationality or birthplace rather than the actual race. So far as available information permits, however, migrants are classified according to race. This applies particularly in cases where a person's nationality differs from race through naturalization or marriage. From July, 1948 onwards, migrants have been classified separately according to both nationality and race and the particulars available are no longer directly comparable with those published for previous years."

51. 1966 Census of Population and Housing, 30 June 1966, Commonwealth of Australia, Volume 1: Population: Single characteristics. Part 11: Race, Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Canberra, (1971), p. 10-11, Table No. 1: "Population , by Race: Australia, Censuses, 1933 to 1966".
As has already been stated, the racial categories used are those as given in the Census table. The grouping of those categories into "Asian", "Pacific Islander, and "African" follows the usage as set in the table of "Non-European Races, 30th June, 1961 (Excluding Overseas-born Migratory)" in the Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 30th June, 1961, Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Canberra, (1968), Vol. VIII - Australia, Statistician's Report, p. 192.

52. Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 30th June, 1961, Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Canberra, (1968), Vol. VIII - Australia, Part I - Cross-Classifications of the Characteristics of the Population, pp. 64-65: Table "No. 33. - Population According To Race: Australia, Censuses, 1947 To 1961 (Exclusive Of Full-Blood Aboriginals)"; Vol. VIII - Australia, Statistician's Report, p. 189: Table "Full-Blood Aboriginals, 30th June, 1961".
As has already been stated, the racial categories used are those as given in the Census table. The grouping of those categories into "Asian", "Pacific Islander, and "African" follows the usage as set in the table of "Non- European Races, 30th June, 1961 (Excluding Overseas-born Migratory)" in the Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, 30th June, 1961, Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Canberra, (1968), Vol. VIII - Australia, Statistician's Report, p. 192.

53. Price, Charles A. Immigration and Ethnicity, Commonwealth Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, Canberra, 1996, pp. 105-108 (Table 3.3: "Converting Birthplace Origin to Ethnic Origin: 1978"). Note: Egypt has been included with "Africa".

54. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "Table BIRTH08R - Confinements And Births - Relative Birthplaces of Mother & Father By Legitimacy", (calendar years 1978 to 1982).
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "Table BTHR009 - Births - Country of Birth of Mother and Father and Nuptiality", (calendar years 1983 to 1986).
In calculating this table, Cyprus figures (deducted from the "Mother born in Asia" category) were taken from the Australian Bureau of Statistics publication Births, Australia for the years 1978 to 1982.

55. McLennan, W. Population Estimates: Concepts, Sources and Methods, Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS catalogue no. 3228.0), Canberra, 1995, p. 4.

56. Charles Price has estimated the number of ethic-Asians in Australia at the time of the 1991 census: "Preliminary estimates for 1991 suggest that there are some 1,055,000 persons of unmixed Asian descent - first, second and later generations taken together - and about 233,000 persons of part Asian origin, a total of 1,288,000 persons of whole or part Asian ancestry".

As can be seen from the workings below, the 1991 census covered 1,118,326 persons of Asian background (822 226 1st generation plus 296,100 2nd generation). Therefore this would mean that the net "other ethnic-Asian population" (allowing for the Asian-born ethnic-Europeans and their offspring and the ethnic-Asians born overseas in places other than Asia) is approximately 169,674.


1991 Census
Asian immigrants (i.e. 1st generation):
West Asia             134 373
South-East Asia       377 844
North-East Asia       199 515
Southern Asia         110 494
Total                 822 226

1991 Census
Australian-born of Asian parentage
(i.e. 2nd generation) by father:
West Asia              89 377
South-East Asia        68 497
North-East Asia        35 440
Southern Asia          37 183
Total                 230 497


Allowance for Australian-born of Asian parentage
(i.e. 2nd generation) by mother, based upon the
1996 census, where the father sub-total is 78% of
the overall 2nd generation total        65 603

= 1991 2nd generation total of         296 100

Note: The West Asia sub-total of the "1991 Census Australian-born of Asian parentage (i.e. 2nd generation) by father" is taken from the "Middle East" total (113,773); subtracting the Egypt sub-total (21,098), and - based upon the Egyptian 2nd generation being approximately 2/3rds of the 1st generation (21,098 2nd generation from 33,214 1st generation) - also subtracting an estimated 3,298 2nd generation "Other North Africa" (based upon 4,946 "Other North Africa" 1st generation).


Birrell, Bob; and Khoo, Siew Ean. The Second Generation in Australia: Educational and Occupational Characteristics (Statistical Report No. 14), AGPS, Canberra, 1995, p. 3.
Bureau of Immigration Research, Statistics Section. Birthplace and Related Data from the 1991 Census: Final Counts for Australia, BIR, (Canberra?), 1993, pp. 5-6.
Price, Charles A. "Australia As Intermediary With Asia: A Demographic View", Journal of Intercultural Studies, Volume 14, Number 1, 1993, p. 30.

57. Note: The figure given for the Australian population (at 30 June 1996) is a preliminary estimate.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. Migration: Australia: 1995-96, ABS (catalogue no. 3412.0), Canberra, 1997, p. 68 (Table 38 "Estimated Resident Population By Country Of Birth, Australia: 30 June 1990 to 1996p").

58. McLennan, W. (Australian Statistician) 1996 Census of Population and Housing: Selected Social and Housing Characteristics: Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS catalogue no. 2015.0), Canberra, 1995, p. 39 (Table B06 "Birthplace (Regions)").

59. Australian Bureau of Statistics. "Number of Persons Born in Australia by Birthplace of Mother by Birthplace of Father, Australia, August 1996" (Statistics from the 1996 Census of Population and Housing; customised census table produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics), ABS, Melbourne, 1997.

60. Australian Bureau of Statistics. "Number of Persons Born in Australia by Birthplace of Mother by Birthplace of Father, Australia, August 1996" (Statistics from the 1996 Census of Population and Housing; customised census table produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics), ABS, Melbourne, 1997.

61. Australian Bureau of Statistics. "Number of Persons Born in Australia by Birthplace of Mother by Birthplace of Father, Australia, August 1996" (Statistics from the 1996 Census of Population and Housing; customised census table produced by the Australian Bureau of Statistics), ABS, Melbourne, 1997.

62. Castles, Ian (ed.) Year Book Australia 1994, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, c1993, pp. 768-770.
International Merchandise Trade: Australia, June Quarter 1995, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, c1995, pp. 10-11.
Vamplew, Wray (ed.) Australians, Historical Statistics, Fairfax, Syme & Weldon, 1987, Broadway, NSW, pp. 196, 204.

63. Castles, Ian (ed.) Year Book Australia 1994, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, c1993, pp. 768-770.
International Merchandise Trade: Australia, June Quarter 1995, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, c1995, pp. 10-11.
Vamplew, Wray (ed.) Australians, Historical Statistics, Fairfax, Syme & Weldon, 1987, Broadway, NSW, pp. 193, 201.

64. Blainey. All For Australia, pp. 106-112.

65. Grover, John. "Migration: 'Secret Figures Prove Blainey Right'", Australia First, Issue 11, 1985, p. 10.

66. Costigan, Peter. "Stewart West Stands Firm In Asian Storm", The Herald, 21 May 1984, p. 4.

67. Department of the Parliamentary Library. Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (Twenty-Sixth edition, 1993), AGPS, Canberra, 1993, pp. 398, 401-402, 420-446.

68. Department of the Parliamentary Library. Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (Twenty-Sixth edition, 1993), p. 421.




The Asianisation of Australia:
Statistics (Immigration, Ethnicity, and Trade) (Volume 2)

Australian Nationalism Information Database - www.ausnatinfo.angelfire.com