The Demise of the White Australia Policy - References



References


(1) Cowie, H.R. Asia and Australia in World Affairs, Thomas Nelson, West Melbourne, 1980, p. 230.

(2) London, H.I. Non-White Immigration and the "White Australia" Policy, Sydney University Press, Sydney, 1970, p. 19.

(3) Encyclopaedia Britannica, William Benton, Chicago, c1971, vol. 6 p. 44A.

(4) Cowie, p. 231.

(5) London, p. 19.

(6) Cowie, p. 232.

(7) London, p. 20.

(8) Greenwood, Gordon. "Australian Foreign Policy in Action", in: Greenwood, Gordon and Harper, Norman (eds). Australia in World Affairs 1961-1965, F.W. Cheshire, Melbourne, 1968, pp. 81-82.

(9) Millar, T.B. "Australian Defence, 1945-1965", in: Greenwood, Gordon and Harper, Norman (eds). Australia in World Affairs 1961-1965, F.W. Cheshire, Melbourne, 1968, p. 258.

(10) Cowie, p. 231.

(11) Encyclopaedia Britannica, William Benton, Chicago, c1971, vol. 6, p. 44A.

(12) Jiggens, John. "A Potted History", Good Weekend: The Age Magazine, 2 March 1996, p. 44.

(13) Johanson, David. "History of the White Australia Policy", in: Rivett, Kenneth (ed.) Immigration: Control or Colour Bar?: The Background to 'White Australia' and a Proposal for Change, Melbourne University Press, Parkville, 1962, p. 26.
Grant, p. 244.
Greenwood, pp. 83-84.

(14) Johanson, p. 26.

(15) Greenwood, p. 83.

(16) Johanson, p.24.

(17) Johanson, p. 26.

(18) Greenwood, p. 83.

(19) London, pp. 15-18.

(20) London, pp. 130-131.

(21) London, pp. 37-38.

(22) London, Chapter 9 "The Prasad Deportation: A Test Case" pp. 229-258.

(23) London, Chapter 9 "The Prasad Deportation: A Test Case" pp. 229-258.

(24) London, pp. 256-258.

(25) Mackie, Jamie. "The Immigration Reform Group: Some Recollections", in: Viviani, Nancy (ed.) The Abolition of the White Australia Policy: The Immigration Reform Group Revisited, Centre for the Study of Australia-Asia Relations, Faculty of Asian and International Studies, Griffith University, Queensland, 1992, p. 25.
Rivett, Ken. "The Immigration Reform Movement", in: Viviani, Nancy (ed.) The Abolition of the White Australia Policy: The Immigration Reform Group Revisited, Centre for the Study of Australia-Asia Relations, Faculty of Asian and International Studies, Griffith University, Queensland, 1992, p. 11.

(26) 1) The Immigration Reform Group was founded in Melbourne (most of its founders came from the University of Melbourne); as was the Student Action organisation.

Brawley, Sean. "Long Hairs and Ratbags. The ALP and the Abolition of the White Australia Policy", in: Whitlam, Gough; et al. A Century of Social Change, Pluto Press; in association with the New South Wales Branch of the Australian Labor Party, Leichhardt; Haymarket, NSW, 1992, pp. 206, 207, 216 (endnote 19).
London, pp. 123-124, 132.
Mackie, Jamie. "The Immigration Reform Group: Some Recollections", in: Viviani, Nancy (ed.) The Abolition of the White Australia Policy: The Immigration Reform Group Revisited, p. 25.

2) It was from the Victorian and Western Australian ALP delegates that the call to remove White Australia from the ALP's Policy had come at the 1963 ALP Federal Conference.

Brawley, p. 208.

3) It was Melbourne that provided the largest anti-Vietnam War protest march: "On 8 May, 1970 the Vietnam Moratorium Campaign took place. More than 70,000 people - it may have been 100,000 or more - marched in Melbourne. There were 25,000 in Sydney, 8,000 in Brisbane, 6,000 in Adelaide, 3,000 in Perth, 3,000 in Hobart and 6,000 more in other parts of Australia".

Cairns, J.F. Silence Kills, Melbourne, 1970; cited in: McKinlay, Brian (ed.). A Documentary History of the Australian Labour Movement 1850-1972, Drummond, Richmond, Victoria, c1979, p. 739.

(27) London, p. 133.
Rivett, Ken. "The Immigration Reform Movement", in: Viviani, Nancy (ed.) The Abolition of the White Australia Policy: The Immigration Reform Group Revisited, p. 11.

(28) Greenwood, p. 84.

(29) Horne, Donald. The Lucky Country: Australia in the Sixties, Penguin, Ringwood, Victoria, 1964 (reprinted 1966), p. 130.

(30) Chipman, Lauchlan. "The Zealots", Quadrant, May 1984, pp. 16-28 (p. 17).
O'Brien, Patrick. The Liberals: Factions, Feuds and Fancies, Penguin, Ringwood, Victoria, 1985, p. 126.

(31) Chipman, p. 17.
O'Brien, p. 126.

(32) It has been postulated that the work of the Immigration Reform Groups "may have had a multiple effect through the thousands of young teacher graduates who sojourned in schools during the 1960s".

McQueen, Humphrey. Gallipoli To Petrov: Arguing With Australian History, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1984, p. 151.

(33) Cook, Christopher (ed.) Pears Cyclopaedia (1980-81 edition), Pelham Books, London, c1980, p. C4.
Tweedie, Sandra. Trading Partners: Australia and Asia 1790-1993, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 1994, p. 7.
Vamplew, Wray (ed.) Australians, Historical Statistics, Fairfax, Syme and Weldon, 1987, Broadway, NSW, pp. 193, 196, 201, 204.

(34) For more detailed information on Australian trade, see Appendix Two.

(35) Calwell, A.A. "A Migrant Nation", in: The World and South East Asia, Oswald Ziegler Enterprises, Sydney, Nov. 1972, p. 156.

(36) Smith, Rhonda L. "Australian Immigration 1945-1975", in: Population, Immigration and the Australian Economy, Croom Helm, London, c1979, pp.37-38.

(37) Patmore, Greg. Australian Labor History, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, 1991, p. 200-201.

(38) Patmore, pp. 201-202.
Australia and Immigration: 1788 to 1988, AGPS, Canberra, c1988, p. 32.

(39) Grant, Bruce. The Australian Dilemma: A New Kind of Western Society, McDonald Futura Australia, Rushcutters Bay, New South Wales, 1983, pp. 241-242.

(40) Smith, p. 41.

(41) Smith, p. 40.
1788-1975: Australia and Immigration, AGPS, Canberra, 1975, p. 10.
Australia and Immigration: 1788 to 1988, AGPS, Canberra, c1988, p. 31.

(42) 1788-1975: Australia and Immigration, AGPS, Canberra, 1975, p. 10.
Australia and Immigration: 1788 to 1988, AGPS, Canberra, c1988, p. 36.

(43) Australia and Immigration: 1788 to 1988, AGPS, Canberra, c1988, p. 36.
1788-1975: Australia and Immigration, p. 10.
Smith, p. 40.

(44) Australia and Immigration: 1788 to 1988, AGPS, Canberra, c1988, p. 31.
1788-1975: Australia and Immigration, p. 11.

(45) Greenwood, pp. 81-82.

(46) Australia and Immigration: 1788 to 1988, AGPS, Canberra, c1988, p. 42.
1788-1975: Australia and Immigration, AGPS, Canberra, 1975, p. 11.
Smith, p. 40.
Year Book Australia 1990, AGPS, Canberra, c1989, p. 137.

(47) 1788-1975: Australia and Immigration, AGPS, Canberra, 1975, p. 11.
Australia and Immigration: 1788 to 1988, AGPS, Canberra, c1988, p. 43.

(48) Greenwood, p. 82.

(49) Calwell, A.A. Be Just and Fear Not, Lloyd O'Neil, Hawthorn, Victoria, 1972, p. 108-109.

(50) Grant, p. 242.

(51) Calwell, A.A. "A Migrant Nation", in: The World and South East Asia, Oswald Ziegler Enterprises, Sydney, Nov. 1972, p. 157.

(52) Betts, Katharine. Ideology and Immigration, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1988, p. 105.

(53) Brawley, p. 205.

(54) Brawley, p. 203-204.

(55) Brawley, p. 206.

Don Dunstan recalled that he was summoned to Calwell's office, following the 1961 attempt, and submitted to a tirade: "He (Calwell) said it would ruin the Party if we altered the immigration policy and that it was only cranks, long hairs, academics and do-gooders who wanted the change and that the worker would never stand for it. We stood our ground. He called in Gough Whitlam and demanded that Gough, as a loyal deputy, support him. Gough said 'Wait one moment. I have been careful always to support you publicly. But inside the Party if you call me before a Party Committee and ask my opinion I will give you my own. And I think it morally indefensible that a social democratic Party should have the words "Maintenance of White Australia" in its platform.' Arthur looked as if he were about to have apoplexy".

Dunstan, Don. Felicia - The Political Memoirs of Don Dunstan, Macmillan, Melbourne, 1981, p. 91; cited in: Brawley, p. 215 (endnote 14).

(56) Brawley, p. 206, 217 (endnote 45).

(57) Brawley, pp. 206-211.

(58) Brawley, p. 208.

(59) The Age, 19 July 1963, cited in: Brawley, p. 208.

(60) Brawley, pp. 208-211.

Calwell later stated, in his autobiography, that "For political and diplomatic reasons, the 1965 Federal ALP conference removed the words 'White Australia' from the Labor Party platform. We certainly did not try to water down the policy nor take the ideal of a White Australia from the hearts and minds of the Australian people. Nobody will ever be able to do that".

Calwell, A.A. Be Just and Fear Not, Lloyd O'Neil, Hawthorn, Victoria, 1972, p. 120.

(61) Jupp, James. Australian Party Politics, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1968; cited in: Brawley, p. 215 (endnote 12).

(62) Brawley, pp. 206, 211.

(63) Brawley, pp. 210-212.
Calwell, A.A. Be Just and Fear Not, p. 121.

(64) Brawley, pp. 212-213.

(65) Arthur Calwell was not at all impressed with the wave of middle-class people that had flowed into the ALP, or with the subsequent "New Guard" that arose. He later said, during the New Guard's attempts at immigration reform, that Gough Whitlam and Lance Barnard (later to be Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister) were in no sense "labour men".

It is heavy irony that the Labor Party was finally brought to power by a brand of people who can be seen to be as actually anti-Labor. In perhaps unintentional support of Calwell's statement, Sean Brawley stated that "In the mid-1960's, James Jupp noted the strange association of Australian Labor with notions of xenophobia. He found this difficult to reconcile in a Party committed to democratic socialism. Yet by the time the ALP finally overcame this xenophobia many commentators claimed the Party had become little more than the Party of a petty bourgeoisie."

Brawley, pp. 211, 213.

(66) Trood, Russell and McNamara, Deborah (eds). The Asia-Australia Survey 1994, Macmillan Education Australia, South Melbourne, 1994, p. 290.

(67) Although Indo-China is regarded by many as consisting of just the three countries of Vietnam, Laos, and Kampuchea (Cambodia) - which do form French Indo-China - it technically comprises, in addition to French Indo-China: Burma, Thailand, and West Malaysia.

Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, G. and C. Merriam, Springfield, Massachusetts, c1980, p. 538.

(68) Grant, pp. 244-245.

(69) Rivett, Ken (ed.) ("for the Immigration Reform Group"). Australia and the Non-White Migrant, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South, Victoria, 1975, p. 40.

(70) Mackie, Jamie. "The Immigration Reform Group: Some Recollections", in: Viviani, Nancy (ed.) The Abolition of the White Australia Policy: The Immigration Reform Group Revisited, p. 26.
Rivett, Ken. "The Immigration Reform Movement", in: Viviani, Nancy (ed.) The Abolition of the White Australia Policy: The Immigration Reform Group Revisited, p. 11.

(71) Viviani, Nancy. "Intellectuals and the Abolition of the White Australia Policy", in: Viviani, Nancy (ed.) The Abolition of the White Australia Policy: The Immigration Reform Group Revisited, Centre for the Study of Australia-Asia Relations, Faculty of Asian and International Studies, Griffith University, Queensland, 1992, p. 34.

(72) Palfreeman, A.C. The Administration of the White Australia Policy, Melbourne University Press, (Parkville, Victoria), 1967, p. 4.

(73) Rivett, Kenneth (ed.) Immigration: Control or Colour Bar?: The Background To "White Australia" and a Proposal For Change, Melbourne University Press, Parkville, Victoria, 1962, p. 136.

(74) Greenwood, p. 85.

(75) Jones, Margaret. "Open Doors For Asians Say Reformers", Sydney Morning Herald, 6 August 1970, p. 8.

(76) Jones, Margaret. "Open Doors For Asians Say Reformers", Sydney Morning Herald, 6 August 1970, p. 8.

(77) Calwell, A.A. Be Just and Fear Not, Lloyd O'Neil, Hawthorn, Victoria, 1972, p. 126.

(78) "Gorton Says: Australia Will Abolish Racism", The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 January 1971, p. 12.
"PM Explains His Role At Singapore Conference", The Australian, 26 January 1971, p. 4.

(79) Monday Conference (television programme), Channel 2, 1 May 1972; cited in: Dique, Dr. J.C.A. Immigration: the Quiet Invasion, Veritas, Bullsbrook, WA, c1985, pp. 164-165.

(80) Rivett, Ken (ed.) ("for the Immigration Reform Group"). Australia and the Non-White Migrant, p. vi.

(81) Castles, Stephen. "The "New" Migration and Australian Immigration Policy", in: Inglis, Christine; S. Gunasekaran, S.; Sullivan, Gerard; and Wu, Chung-Tong (eds). Asians in Australia: The Dynamics of Migration and Settlement, Allen and Unwin, St. Leonards, NSW, 1992, p. 70.

(82) 1959/60 - 1967/68 figures: Department of Immigration. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 2, AGPS, Canberra, 1968, pp. 57-60, Table 24.
1968/69 - 1972/73 figures: Department of Immigration. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 7, AGPS, Canberra, 1973, pp. 58-61, Table 24.
1973/74 - 1981/82 figures: Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics No. 13, 1982, AGPS, Canberra, 1984, pp. 60-63, Table 24.
1982/83 - 1987/88 figures: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial year 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); and "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1988).
1988/89 - 1993/94 figures: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9.
1994/95 figures: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Immigration Update, September Quarter 1995, AGPS, Canberra, c1995, pp. 21-23, Table 1.13.
1995/96 - 1996/97 figures: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1996 to 1997).

1976/77 - 1996/97 figures confirmed by using:
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Unpublished Statistics (on microfiche): "MIG011B, Overseas Arrivals and Departures" (financial years 1977 to 1983); "PMTP009A, Total Arrivals" (financial year 1984); "PMTR009A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1985 to 1989); and "PMTR005A, Total Arrivals" (financial years 1989 to 1997).

Note: A minor corrective adjustment of 109 has been made to the 1975/76 figures for the Permanent Arrivals (Settlers) table since the Oct. 1996 and Dec. 1996 editions of this publication.

(83) Issues of Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics up to, and including, edition number 16, followed the Australian Bureau of Statistics' definition used for Settler status (refer to Settler Arrival statistics, with particular regard to the years 1982/83 - 1987/88). Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics from editions numbered 17 and 18 followed the Department of Immigration's definition used for Settler status (again - refer to Settler Arrival statistics, with particular regard to the years 1982/83 - 1987/88).

(84) 1982/83 - 1983/84 figures: Bureau of Immigration and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 17, 1991-92, AGPS, Canberra, c1993, pp. 24-26, Table 2.9.
1984/85 - 1987/88 figures: Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural and Population Research. Australian Immigration: Consolidated Statistics Number 18, 1993-94, AGPS, Canberra, 1995, pp. 19-21, Table 2.9.

(85) Castles, Ian (ed.) Year Book Australia 1994, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, c1993, pp. 768-770.
International Merchandise Trade: Australia, June Quarter 1995, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, c1995, pp. 10-11.
Vamplew, Wray (ed.) Australians, Historical Statistics, Fairfax, Syme and Weldon, 1987, Broadway, NSW, pp. 196, 204.

(86) Castles, Ian (ed.) Year Book Australia 1994, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, c1993, pp. 768-770.
International Merchandise Trade: Australia, June Quarter 1995, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, c1995, pp. 10-11.
Vamplew, Wray (ed.) Australians, Historical Statistics, Fairfax, Syme and Weldon, 1987, Broadway, NSW, pp. 193, 201.




The Demise of the White Australia Policy

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