Union Jacks and Southern Skies - References



References


(1) J. Mark Howard, Australian History and its Background, Shakespeare Head, Sydney, 1972, pp. 159-163.
Suzanne Mellor (ed.), Australian History: The Occupation of a Continent, Eureka, Blackburn, 1978, pp. 257-258.

(2) Gordon Greenwood, Australia: A Social and Political History, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1955, pp. 181-193.
Howard, op. cit., p. 166.
Mellor, op. cit., pp. 258-263.

(3) Senate, Hansard, 9 October 1901, p. 5749.

(4) The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 20 October 1900, pp. 442-443.

(5) Frank Cayley, Flag of Stars, Rigby, Adelaide, 1966, pp. 97-98.
The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 20 April 1901, p. 378.

(6) Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, no. 27, 29 April 1901, p. 89.
The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 20 October 1900, pp. 442-443; 20 November 1900, pp. 571-572; 15 December 1900, pp. 701-702; 15 January 1901, p. 39-40.

(7) Cayley, op. cit., pp. 98, 102.
The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 20 September 1901, p. 244.

(8) A.G. Puttock, Heraldry in Australia, Child and Associates, Frenchs Forest, NSW, 1988, p. 120.
The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 15 January 1901, p. 40; 20 September 1901, pp. 242, 244, 246.

(9) Bede Nairn and Geoffrey Serle (general editors), Australian Dictionary of Biography, 1891-1939, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 1981, Vol. 8, p. 447.
The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 20 October 1900, pp. 442-443; 20 August 1901, p. 128; 20 September 1901, p. 241, 243.

TWO COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS REGARDING THE FLAG COMPETITION:

1) Several publications have stated that there were seven judges, when there were only five. This mistake seems to have arisen from The Review of Reviews listing the seven names of the competition's "judges and officials" (20 September 1901, p. 241). The Review of Reviews gives the names of the five judges on p. 128 of its 20 August 1901 edition, and confirms their number on p. 241 of its 20 September 1901 edition. Mr J.S. Blackham, chief of staff of the Melbourne Herald, was the competition official "who superintended the classification and arrangement of the flags" for "when they were shown in Melbourne's Exhibition Building" (see The Review of Reviews, 20 August 1901, p. 127; 20 September 1901, pp. 241, 243, 244). Mr G. Stewart was another competition official (see The Review of Reviews, 20 September 1901, pp. 243); Frank Cayley has described Stewart as "an expert in heraldry".

Cayley, op. cit., p. 98.
Ivor Evans, "History of the Australian Flag", in Crux Australis: Journal of the Flag Society of Australia, Vol. 1/1 (June 2 1984), p. 37.
The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 20 August 1901, p. 127, 128; 20 September 1901, p. 241, 243, 244.
John C. Vaughan, "Australia's National Flag Competition", in Crux Australis: Journal of the Flag Society of Australia, Vol. 2/1, No. 7 (July 1985), p. 21-22.

2) Several publications have stated that a condition of the competition was that each entry had to have a Union Jack. In fact, neither the Government's competition rules, nor the Review of Reviews' competition rules, specifically asked for a Union Jack as a condition of entry (although any entry without one would be expected to have little chance of success).

However, many articles written on the 1901 flag competition have quoted the competition rules as stating that the design should "be based on the British ensigns ... signalling to the beholder that it is an Imperial union ensign of the British Empire".

There was no such competition rule. This error stems from Gwen Swinburne's 1969 book, Unfurled: Australia's Flag, in which she incorrectly attributes the above quote as a condition for the 1901 flag competition. She had apparently used a passage from Barlow Cumberland's 1909 book, History of the Union Jack and the Flag of the Empire, as the basis of her quote.

Barlow Cumberland, History of the Union Jack and the Flag of the Empire, William Briggs, Toronto, 1909, p. 289.
Crux Australis: Journal of the Flag Society of Australia, Vol. 8/3, No. 35 (July-September 1992), p. 141 (endnote 10).
G.H. Swinburne, Unfurled: Australia's Flag, Sirius Publications, Melbourne, 1969, p. 76.

Examples of this mistake:
June Cadzow, "Standard Debate Over the Ensign Raised Up Again", in The Australian, 26 January 1984.
Our Own Flag, (Ausflag pamphlet).
Henry Reynolds, "An Erstwhile Ensign", in Modern Times, June 1992, pp. 4-5.

(10) Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, no. 27, 29 April 1901, p. 89.
The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 20 September 1901, p. 244.

(11) House of Representatives, Hansard, 27 November 1901, p. 7837.

(12) A. C. Burton, "Australia's Forgotten Flag", in Crux Australis: Journal of the Flag Society of Australia, Vol. 8/3, No.36 (October-December 1992), pp. 169, 173-180.
Cayley, op. cit., pp. 93-95, 113-114.
Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, no. 8, 20 February 1903, p. 93.
John Christian Vaughan, Flags of Australia (wall chart), Standard Publishing, Rozelle, NSW, 1983.

(13) Cayley, op. cit., p. 115.
Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, no. 29, 22 May 1909, p. 1124.

(14) Cayley, op. cit., pp. 111-112.

(15) Cayley, op. cit., p. 111.

(16) Cayley, op. cit., pp. 97, 110.
The Children's Encyclopedia, The Educational Book Company, London, (1957-58?), Vol. 10, p. 6995.

(17) Cayley, op. cit., p. 115.
Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia, AGPS, Canberra, 1984, p. 288.

(18) Cayley, op. cit., p. 111.

(19) Michelle Grattan, "Jones Flies the Flag for the Upside-Down Hundertwasser Design", in The Age, 30 April 1992, p. 3.

(20) The Review of Reviews for Australasia, 20 September 1901, p. 241.

(21) Flags Act 1953, First Schedule.
The fact that "The Australian National Flag is the British Blue Ensign" was clearly stated in the First Schedule of the Flags Act 1953, and left unaltered by the Flags Act 1953-1954 and the Flags Act 1953-1973. However, the Flags Amendment Act 1981 was used to specifically remove (or hide?) that information or wording.

Flags Act 1953
Flags Act 1953-1954
Flags Act 1953-1973
Flags Amendment Act 1981

(22) Burton, op. cit., p. 179.
Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, no. 27, 29th April 1901, p. 89.
Department of Administrative Services, op. cit., p. 6.

(23) Burton, op. cit., p. 179.
Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, no. 27, 29th April 1901, p. 89.
Department of Administrative Services, op. cit., p. 6.

(24) Burton, op. cit., p. 177-179.
Mimmo Cozzolino (ed.), Symbols of Australia, Penguin Books Australia, Ringwood, 1987, p. 26.
Vaughan, Flags of Australia, op. cit.

(25) Department of Administrative Services, op. cit., p. 7.

(26) Malcolm Booker, A Republic of Australia: What Would it Mean?, Left Book Club, Sydney, 1992, p. 22.
Cayley, op. cit., p. 117.
Peter Cotton, "Clash of Symbols", in The Age, 1st October 1994, Good Weekend magazine supplement p. 40.
Crux Australis: Journal of the Flag Society of Australia, Vol. 8/3, No. 35 (July- September 1992), p. 127.
Steve Duke, "The Union Flag", in Crux Australis: Journal of the Flag Society of Australia, Vol. 1/1 (June 2 1984), p. 30-31.
Don Petersen, "A Man Eager For War", in The Sunday Herald, 3rd September 1989, magazine supplement p. 26.
V. Wheller-Holohan, Flags of the World: Past and Present: Their Story and Associations, Frederick Warne, London, 1939, p. 51.

(27) Cumberland, op. cit., pp. 272, 289.

(28) Department of Administrative Services, op. cit., p. 7.
Flags Act 1953-1973.

(29) Donald Horne, "Symbols of a Nation", in Donald Horne (ed.), The Coming Republic, Pan Macmillan, 1992, p. 96.
Richard Kirby, "To Hang the Flag Or Fly It High?", in The Australian, 19 February 1992, p. 11.
Our Own Flag, (Ausflag pamphlet).

(30) Crampton, op. cit., p. 23.

(31) Harold Scruby and Brendan Jones, "Britain's Legacy Flies in the Face of Public Opinion", in The Age, 30 January 1997, p. A15.

(32) The Children's Encyclopedia, op. cit., Vol. 10, pp. 6981-6982, 6984.
Crampton, op. cit., pp. 26-29, 124-126, 131.
Christian Fogd Pedersen, The International Flag Book in Colour, Blandford, Dorset, 1977, pp. 20, 55, 84, 116, 120.
Whitney Smith, Flags Through the Ages and Across the World, McGraw-Hill, c1975, pp. 187, 291.
Mauro Talocci, Guide to the Flags of the World, Sidgwick and Jackson, London, 1982, pp. 87, 157, 175-176, 185, 196-197, 203, 205, 233, 245, 249, 251, 252-255. SL:D252471.

(33) Ron Tandberg, "Hurry! While Stocks Last ... A British Flag With Some Stars Tossed In" (cartoon), in Kaye Healey (ed.), Towards a Republic, The Spinney Press, Wentworth Falls, c1993, p. 20.

(34) Cayley, op. cit., pp. 18-19.
Crampton, op. cit., p. 23.
Puttock, op. cit., p. 119.
Smith, op. cit., p. 186.




Union Jacks and Southern Skies

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