The Asianisation of Australia: volume 2, part 3



Part Three


The Asian Population in Australia




In determining the ethnic-Asian proportion of the population, the best solution would be for such information to be gathered in a census. However, the Australian government, via the Australian Bureau of Statistics, no longer gathers such information. Nonetheless, it may be of interest to note the results of the race question in previous censuses.

In the tables below, results from the 1933, 1947, 1954, 1961, and 1966 censuses are given. 1966 was the last census in which detailed racial origins were published; after 1976 the census stopped asking a "race" question altogether (except for the continuing question re. Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders). Also below, detailed information from the 1961 census is given, which lists the Australian population by race, in "full- blood" and "mixed-blood" categories.

Contemporary statistics are also provided, regarding the estimation of the current ethnic-Asian population in Australia.



TABLE 19

POPULATION BY RACE:
AUSTRALIA, CENSUSES, 1933 TO 1966
(51)



RACE (a):                   1933      %         1947      %         1954      %





EUROPEAN (b):            6 579 993  98.883   7 524 129  98.960   8 921 691  98.988



NON-EUROPEAN (c):



Asian:

Afghan                         246                 220                 214

Arab, Persian                  115                 150                 301

Asiatic Jew                    216                 135                  83

Asiatic (n.e.i.)                77                  31               1 014

Chinese                     14 349              12 094              15 558 

Cingalese, Burgher, Tamil      350                 254                 391

Filipino                       390                 449                 428

Indian, Pakistani            3 098               2 898               2 647

Indonesian, Javanese,

   Timorese, etc.              111                 269                 381

Japanese                     2 466                 335                 785

Malay                        1 129                 974               1 234

Siamese, Thailander             13                  35                 266

Syrian, Lebanese             3 182               1 898               2 489



Total Asian                 25 742   0.387      19 742   0.260      25 791   0.286





Pacific Islander:

Fijian                          70                 178                  99

Maori                          197                 249                 257

Pacific Islander

   (n.e.i.)              (d) 1 822           (d) 5 583               2 212

Papuan, New Guinean            247                  34                  53

Torres Strait Islander         (e)                 (e)               4 362



Total Pacific Islander       2 336   0.035       6 044   0.080       6 983   0.077





African:

African (n.e.i.)               (f)                 (f)                  72

Egyptian                        16                  42                  72

Negro                          330                 254                 204



Total African                  346   0.005         296   0.004         348   0.004





Mixed blood (g)                (f)       -         (f)       -         (f)       - 

Other and Indefinite       (h) 802   0.012   (h) 1 968   0.026     (i) 358   0.004





Total Non-European

(excluding Aborigines)      29 226   0.439      28 050   0.369      33 480   0.371





Australian Aborigines (j)   45 066   0.677      51 048   0.671      57 722   0.640



Total Non-European

(including Aborigines)      74 292   1.116      79 098   1.040      91 202   1.012



Grand Total              6 654 285  100.00   7 603 227  100.00   9 012 893  100.00





RACE (a):                        1961     %           1966     %





EUROPEAN (b):              10 418 761  98.809   11 453 375  98.740





NON-EUROPEAN (c):



Asian:

Afghan                            217                   89

Arab, Persian                     596                1 321

Asiatic Jew                       114                  243

Asiatic (n.e.i.)                1 346                2 636

Chinese                        23 568               26 723

Cingalese, Burgher, Tamil         891                1 679

Filipino                          693                  765

Indian, Pakistani               4 065                4 411

Indonesian, Javanese,

   Timorese, etc.                 678                  818

Japanese                        2 671                3 573

Malay                           1 705                1 749

Siamese, Thailander               276                  562

Syrian, Lebanese                3 457                4 855



Total Asian                    40 277   0.382       49 424   0.426





Pacific Islander:

Fijian                            181                  257

Maori                             449                  862

Pacific Islander

   (n.e.i.)                     2 915                3 005

Papuan, New Guinean               206                  502

Torres Strait Islander          5 217                5 403



Total Pacific Islander          8 968   0.077       10 029   0.086





African:

African (n.e.i.)                  105                  601

Egyptian                          103                  425

Negro                             251                  102



Total African                     459   0.004        1 128   0.010





Mixed blood (g)                   (f)       -        4 812   0.041

Other and Indefinite          (i) 549   0.005          523   0.004





Total Non-European

(excluding Aborigines)         50 253   0.477       65 916   0.568





Australian Aborigines (j)      75 309   0.714       80 207   0.691





Total Non-European

(including Aborigines)        125 562   1.191      146 123   1.259





Grand Total                10 544 323  100.00   11 599 498  100.00


Notes:
(a) Racial categories, as well as the following notes, are those as stated in the Census table.
(b) Persons of over 50 per cent European race.
(c) Persons of more than 50 per cent of the race specified, or of 50 per cent of the race specified and 50 per cent European.
(d) Includes Torres Strait Islander.
(e) Included in Pacific Islander n.e.i.
(f) Included in "Other and indefinite".
(g) Persons of three or more races where no race represents more than 50 per cent, or persons of two non-European races each of which represents 50 per cent.
(h) Includes African n.e.i. and mixed blood.
(i) Includes mixed blood.
(j) Includes people who reported themselves as being more than 50 per cent Aboriginal or simply as Aboriginal.
(n.e.i.) - not elsewhere included.




TABLE 20

POPULATION ACCORDING TO RACE
AUSTRALIA, 30TH JUNE, 1961 CENSUS
(52)



                                 Full-Blood           Mixed-Blood:

Race (a)                       Non-European       European and (c)                Total





Asian:

   Afghan                                99                    118                   217

   Arab, Persian                        555                     41                   596

   Asiatic Jew                          101                     13                   114

   Asiatic (n.e.i.)                   1 118                    228                 1 346

   Chinese                           20 382                  3 186                23 568

   Cingalese, Burgher, Tamil            663                    228                   891

   Filipino                             297                    396                   693

   Indian, Pakistani                  3 532                    533                 4 065

   Indonesian, Javanese,

      Timorese, etc.                    539                    139                   678

   Japanese                           1 718                    953                 2 671

   Malay                              1 063                    642                 1 705

   Siamese, Thailander                  240                     36                   276

   Syrian, Lebanese                   3 241                    216                 3 457



   Total Asian                       33 548                  6 729                40 277





Pacific Islander:

   Fijian                               138                     43                   181

   Maori                                194                    255                   449

   Pacific Islander (n.e.i.) (b)      2 186                    729                 2 915

   Papuan, New Guinean                  130                     76                   206

   Torres Strait Islander             4 972                   2 45                 5 217



   Total Pacific Islander             7 620                  1 348                 8 968





African:

   African (n.e.i.)                      84                     21                   105

   Egyptian                              76                     27                   103

   Negro                                132                    119                   251



   Total African                        292                    167                   459





Other and Indefinite                    120                    429                   549





Total non-European (excluding

   Australian Aboriginal)            41 580                  8 673                 50 253





Australian Aboriginal                36 137                 39 172                 75 309





Grand Total                          77 717                 47 845                125 562


Note: The 1961 Census estimated that there were a further 3 944 Full-Blood Aboriginals that were not counted as they were "out of contact at Census".
(a) Racial categories, as well as the following notes, are those as stated in the Census table.
(b) Includes Pacific Islander, Polynesian and South Sea Islander so described.
(c) This category covers persons with European blood to the extent of one-half and blood of a Non- European race to the extent of one-half.
(n.e.i.) = not elsewhere included.




TABLE 21

POPULATION ACCORDING TO RACE
FIGURES AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE AUSTRALIAN POPULATION
(As at 30th June, 1961)



Asians:                                                      40 277       0.38%

Other Non-Europeans (excluding Australian Aborigines):        9 976       0.09%

Total Non-Europeans (excluding Australian Aborigines):       50 253                    0.48%



Europeans:                                               10 418 761                   98.77%



Australian Aborigines (Half-Blood):                          39 172       0.37%

Australian Aborigines (Full-Blood):                          40 081       0.38%

Total Australian Aborigines:                                 79 253                    0.75%



Total Australian population (excluding

Aboriginal Full-Bloods):                                 10 508 186      99.62%



Total Australian population:                             10 548 267                  100.00%


Note: This table is a summarisation of the 1961 census information, as provided by the preceding two tables.




TABLE 22

ETHNO-EUROPEAN AND ETHNO-ASIAN
MIGRATION TO AUSTRALIA
(As at 1978)


Dr. Charles Price has estimated the numbers of ethno-Europeans born outside of Europe that have migrated to Australia (as at 1978):(53)

UNITED KINGDOM:
(From Asia) 100 Turkey, 250 Lebanon-Syria, 3172 Palestine, 55185 India, 2292 Pakistan, 482 Bangladesh, 6132 Sri Lanka, 4935 Burma, 20 Thailand, 8833 Malaysia, 873 Philippines, 626 Indonesia, 161 East Timor, 150 Indochina, 67274 China etc., 5646 Japan, 465 Korea, 1850 Other Asia = 158,446.
(From elsewhere) 359 Egypt, 6307 Mauritius, 37693 South Africa, 11827 Other Africa, 10540 British West Indies, 616 Spanish America, 5481 Papua New Guinea, 9819 Fiji, 15668 Pacific, 94 At Sea = 98,404.

SOUTH EUROPE:
(From Asia) 500 East Timor, 500 India, 500 Sri Lanka, 437 China, 3875 Philippines, 1200 Turkey = 7,012.
(From elsewhere) 17742 Egypt, 1515 Africa, 1225 British West Indies, 42501 Spanish America, 1350 Portugese America = 64,333.

EAST EUROPE:
(From Asia) 3116 Palestine, 6500 China = 9,616.

WEST/NORTH EUROPE:
(From Asia) 196 Palestine, 500 Lebanon-Syria, 5250 Sri Lanka, 8800 Indonesia, 75 Thailand, 750 Indo-China = 15,571.
(From elsewhere) 107 Egypt, 7500 South Africa, 5500 Mauritius, 1260 Other Africa, 1950 British West Indies, 5425 Pacific, 2000 Papua New Guinea = 23,742.


TOTALS:

From Asia
190,645

From elsewhere
186,479

Total
377,124




Dr. Charles Price has also estimated the numbers of ethno-Asians born outside of Asia that have migrated to Australia (as at 1978):

WEST ASIA:
(From Europe) 250 Cyprus.
(From elsewhere) 1750 Egypt.

SOUTH ASIA:
(From Europe) 300 United Kingdom,
(From elsewhere) 935 Mauritius, 375 South Africa, 1000 Other Africa, 1300 Fiji, 190 Pacific, 35 Papua New Guinea = 3,835.

SOUTH-EAST ASIA:
(From Europe) n/a.
(From elsewhere) 100 Other Africa, 100 Papua New Guinea = 200.

EAST ASIA:
(From Europe) n/a.
(From elsewhere) 50 Mauritius, 15 South Africa, 10 Other Africa, 10 Spanish America, 10 British West Indies, 1400 Papua New Guinea, 250 Fiji, 195 Pacific = 1,940.


TOTALS:

From Asia
550

From elsewhere
7,725

Total
8,275



It should be noted that the above information relates to the period before the massive influx of immigrants from the Asian region in the 1980s and 1990s; and that the ethno-European influx from Asia was largely an historical event that occurred during the 1940s to 1960s due to various political and social factors, such as the overthrow or dismantling of the European colonial governments in Asia and other parts of the Third World.
It should also be noted that the above information relates not only to first generation immigrants, but also to their offspring.





TABLE 23

ASIAN BIRTHS IN AUSTRALIA, 1978-1988
(54)



     Mother   Father born in Asia; mother born elsewhere:

    born in                                                Pacific  Not     Father

Year   Asia:  Africa  America    (Asia) Australia  Europe  Islands  stated  Sub-Total    Total



1978   8399       74       40    (6176)      1384     471       72       2      2043    10 442

1979   9263       74       41    (6858)      1522     439       79       -      2157    11 420

1980   9948       87       42    (7417)      1478     464       78       -      2149    12 097

1981  11212       68       58    (8214)      1553     481       87       -      2247    13 459

1982  12396       76       49    (8868)      1755     491       89       -      2460    14 856

1983  13298       77       47    (9175)      1642     477       91       -      2334    15 632

1984  13384       79       49    (9267)      1560     414       92       -      2194    15 578

1985  15127       92       60   (10254)      1716     441      110       1      2420    17 547

1986  14916       86       67   (10130)      1805     457      100       -      2515    17 431

1987  16276       92       61   (11058)      1867     414      101       -      2535    18 811

1988  17709       80       70   (12229)      1887     475      132       3      2647    20 356






Summary



          Mother          Father born in Asia,                 "Father" increase over

          born in Asia:   mother born elsewhere:      Total:   "Mother" figures; %



1978              8 399                    2 043      10 442                  24.3

1979              9 263                    2 157      11 420                  23.3

1980              9 948                    2 149      12 097                  21.6

1981             11 212                    2 247      13 459                  20.0

1982             12 396                    2 460      14 856                  19.8

1983             13 298                    2 334      15 632                  17.5

1984             13 384                    2 194      15 578                  16.4

1985             15 127                    2 420      17 547                  16.0

1986             14 916                    2 515      17 431                  16.9

1987             16 276                    2 535      18 811                  15.6

1988             17 709                    2 647      20 356                  14.9



1978-1986       141 928                   25 701     167 629                  18.1


Notes:
a) All years listed are calendar years: January 1st to December 31st.
b) "Asia" includes "West Asia", except that Cyprus has been included in "Europe".
c) The "Asia" category for "Father born in Asia; mother born elsewhere" section has not been added to the sub-total or total, so as not to double-count births already included in the "Mother born in Asia" section.




TABLE 24

ESTIMATED ASIAN POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA
(From the 1996 Census)
(Including statistical workings)

See tables 24-A to 24-E




TABLE 24-A



ESTIMATED ASIAN POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA

(at the time of the 1996 Census)



Total of mother born in Asia              328 177

minus father/mother both born in Asia    -237 553

                                         = 90 624



Total of father born in Asia              318 677

minus father/mother both born in Asia    -237 553

                                         = 81 124



Father and mother both born in Asia       237 553



Total second generation                                   409 301



Persons born in Asia                                    1 008 327



Allowance for Census net undercount,

at 2% of above totals (1 417 628)(55)                      28 353



Net allowance for subtracting ethnic-Europeans

born in Asia (and their offspring) and adding

approximate population of "other ethnic-Asians"

(3rd generation, etc.)(56*)                                169,674





TOTAL ESTIMATE OF ASIAN POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA:        1 615 655





Ethnic-Asian percentage of the Australian population

(estimated at 18,289,100 at 30 June 1996)(57*)  =   8.8%

(56*)



TABLE 24-B



1996 Census

Persons born in Asia:(58)



West Asia            152,183

Southeast Asia       456,460

Northeast Asia       254,186

Southern Asia        145,498



Total              1,008,327





Note: Excludes overseas visitors.





TABLE 24-C



1996 Census

Australian-born offspring of persons born in Asia (by father):(59)



                            Birthplace of father:



Birthplace                  West       S.E.       N.E.       S.

of mother:                  Asia       Asia       Asia       Asia          Total



Australia                   14 670     18 153      9 542     16 014        58 379

New Zealand                    445        527        185        330         1 487

Melanesia                       11        142        241         41           435

Micronesia                       4          -          9          -            13

Polynesia                      114        138        126        318           696

U.K. and Ireland             1 321      2 492        951      3 319         8 083

Southern Europe              1 657        481        163        405         2 706

Western Europe                 726      1 304        335        572         2 937

Northern Europe                 77         54         39         63           233

Eastern Europe                 379        122        136        141           778

Former USSR and

Baltic States                  214         34        200         54           502

West Asia                   89 303         63         66        195        89 627

Southeast Asia                 437      78 421     3 817      1 903        84 578

Northeast Asia                 181       3 424    34 071        125        37 801

Southern Asia                  238         645        79     25 395        26 357

Northern America               205         137        61         99           502

South America                  380         120        37         70           607

Central America                 38          28         3         15            84

Caribbean                       28          16         9         19            72

North Africa                   634          36        12         49           731

Central and West Africa        155           4         -          6           165

Southern and East Africa       200         193        59        340           792

Inadequately described,

at sea, and n.e.c.             174          82        35         55           346

Not stated                     320         262        81        103           766



Total                      111 911     106 878    50 257     49 631       318 677


Notes:
(a) Excludes persons whose place of usual residence on Census night was overseas.
(b) Polynesia excludes Hawaii.
(c) "n.e.c." is an abbreviation of "not elsewhere classified"




TABLE 24-D



1996 Census

Australian-born offspring of persons born in Asia (by mother):(60)



                            Birthplace of mother:



Birthplace                  West       S.E.       N.E.       S.

of father:                  Asia       Asia       Asia       Asia          Total



Australia                    6 240     30 937      8 500     10 572        56 249

New Zealand                    142      1 149        314        273         1 878

Melanesia                        8        164        258         21           451

Micronesia                       -          3          -          -             3

Polynesia                       30        126         93        184           433

Europe n.f.d.                    -          5          3          -             8

U.K. and Ireland               666      6 592      1 577      3 124        11 959

Southern Europe              1 119      2 812        526        560         5 017

Western Europe                 470      3 577        623        716         5 386

Northern Europe                 25        333         60         58           476

Eastern Europe                 585        812        327        147         1 871

Former USSR and

Baltic States                  220        103        524         50           897

West Asia                   89 303        437        181        238        90 159

Southeast Asia                  63     78 421      3 424        645        82 553

Northeast Asia                  66      3 817     34 071         79        38 033

Southern Asia                  195      1 093        125     25 395        26 808

Northern America               102        298        112        146           658

South America                  147        194         46         47           434

Central America                 16         31          7          4            58

Caribbean                       20         27          8          8            63

North Africa                   918        184         62         42         1 206

Central and West Africa        212         34          3         18           267

Southern and East Africa       111        346         86        355           898

Inadequately described,

at sea, and n.e.c.             123        188         55         63           429

Not stated                     517      1 088        197        181         1 983



Total                      101 298    132 771     51 182     42 926       328 177


Notes:
(a) Excludes persons whose place of usual residence on Census night was overseas.
(b) Polynesia excludes Hawaii.
(c) "n.e.c." is an abbreviation of "not elsewhere classified"
(d) "Europe n.f.d." is an abbreviation of "Europe and former USSR not further defined"




TABLE 24-E



1996 Census

Birthplace of mother and father (both born in Asia): (61)



                            Birthplace of mother:



Birthplace                  West       S.E.       N.E.       S.

of father:                  Asia       Asia       Asia       Asia          Total



West Asia                   89 303        437        181        238        90 159

Southeast Asia                  63     78 421      3 424        645        82 553

Northeast Asia                  66      3 817     34 071         79        38 033

Southern Asia                  195      1 093        125     25 395        26 808



Total                       89 627     83 768     37 801     26 357       237 553





The Asianisation of Australia:
Statistics (Immigration, Ethnicity, and Trade) (Volume 2)

Australian Nationalism Information Database - www.ausnatinfo.angelfire.com