The Fight for Australian Culture - References



References





(1) P.R. Stephensen, "The Foundations of Culture in Australia: An Essay towards National Self-Respect", first published as the editorial in the July 1935 issue of the Australian Mercury; reprinted in The Writer in Australia: A Collection of Literary Documents, 1854 to 1964, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1969, pages 204-244 (page 205).

Stephensen expanded this essay, with two more installments. It has since been republished in its entirety:
The Foundations of Culture in Australia: An Essay towards National Self Respect, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1986, ISBN 0-04-909029-1.

(2) Note: Geographically, Ireland is part of the British Isles. It is not part of Great Britain, which is comprised of England, Scotland, Wales, and the adjacent islands (but not including the Isle of Man nor the Channel Islands, which are Crown dependencies). The United Kingdom is Great Britain with the addition of Northern Ireland.

See for instance:
Hutchinson's New 20th Century Encyclopedia, Hutchinson, London, 1971, pages 172, 490.
Whitaker's Almanack, 1994, J. Whitaker & Sons, London, c1993, page 118.

(3) P.R. Stephensen, "The Foundations of Culture in Australia", op. cit. (1969), pages 211-212.

(4) Stephen Gard, Inventive Australians, Jacaranda, Milton, Qld., 1990.
Stephen Gard, Our Bright Ideas, Jacaranda, Milton, Qld., 1990.

(5) Stephen Gard, Inventive Australians.
Stephen Gard, Our Bright Ideas.

(6) G.A. Wilkes (ed.), A Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms, Sydney University Press, Sydney, 1978.

(7) For further discussion on the definition of a People, see for instance:
Harry Phillips and Campbell Reilly, Key Concepts in Politics, Thomas Nelson Australia, Melbourne, 1982, pages 152-161.
Ange Sampieuru, "What is a People", The Scorpion, Issue No. 11 (Summer 1987), page 34.

(8) Harry Phillips and Campbell Reilly, Key Concepts in Politics, page 152.

(9) Note: Some people regard the labelling of some cultures as "Stone Age cultures" as derogatory; however, this is simply an accurate description of the level of their culture, just as European cultures were at some stage Stone Age cultures, and then moved on into the Bronze Age, and later into the Iron Age. A tribe whose development of implements, tools, and weapons has not progressed beyond the use of Stone can be factually referred to as being at the "Stone Age" level of development.

(10) Note: Not to be confused with the term "state" as used interchangeably with "country"; or with "state" as used as a term for a province or sub-country unit, as in Australia and the USA.

(11) Note: Many people were jailed, and even transported to Australia as convicts (e.g. the Tolpuddle Martyrs), due to the anti-Trade Union actions of the British State (the Combination Laws had been repealed in 1824, and therefore the Tolpuddle Martyrs were convicted on the spurious charge of "administering unlawful oaths"). The fall of the Combination Acts, the freeing of the Tolpuddle Martyrs, and the end of the gentry-controlled parliaments, occurred only gradually and by the courageous efforts of activists and radicals (one such radical, John Wilkes, actually became a member of the British parliament several times, but was expelled each time he was elected).

See, for instance:
Hutchinson's New 20th Century Encyclopedia, pages 277-278, 1039, 1094.

(12) David Tremayne, The Nature of State Power: The Farce of Democracy in Australia, 1996, pages 6-7.

(13) David Tremayne, The Nature of State Power: The Farce of Democracy in Australia, 1996, page 2.

(14) Michael Walker, "The Nationalist Enigma", The Scorpion, Issue No. 4, (Spring 1983), pages 3-5 (page 5).

(15) W. Fearn-Wannan (Bill Wannan), Australian Folklore: A Dictionary of Lore, Legends and Popular Allusions, Lansdowne, Melbourne, 1972, page 345.

(16) Although the current English monarchy is technically and legally the monarchy of the United Kingdom, in actual practice it is an English monarchy - for cultural reasons, as well as geographical reasons. It may try to be "British"; but even many British people perceive that it is an English, rather than British, monarchy.
Even further, it could be viewed as an Anglo-German monarchy, based as it is on German blood.

(17) See: William Byrne, Republic Versus Monarchy, The Institute of Australian Culture, Watsonia, 1995.

(18) See: Gary Howell, Union Jacks and Southern Skies: The Australian Commonwealth Flag and the Need For a New National Flag, The Institute of Australian Culture, Watsonia, 1995.

(19) That is; a real National flag, instead of the current British "colonial" flag.

(20) P.R. Stephensen, "The Foundations of Culture in Australia", op. cit. (1969), page 214.

(21) Note: In days gone by, there had been confusion regarding the use of the word "native", as its prior common usage was as a term for "black natives". This confusion prompted Henry Lawson to write an explanatory note for his poem "The Southern Scout" (which had a sub-title of "The Natives of the Land"):
"The writer wishes to state, for the benefit of the majority of the English people, that Australians born of Europeans have been called "natives" for many years. Also that Australians are not all black, or even brown, neither are they red. Likewise, that the progeny of Marster "Jarge" or "Willum" as went "abrad" and came to Australia, are not necessarily little savages, unless, indeed, the Marster Jarge or Willum aforesaid happens to live with a black gin."

Henry Lawson, "The Southern Scout" (1892), A Camp-Fire Yarn: Henry Lawson, Complete Works, 1885-1900, Lansdowne, Sydney, 1984, page 227.

(22) P.R. Stephensen, "The Foundations of Culture in Australia", op. cit. (1969), pages 215, 231-232, 237.

(23) Henry Lawson, "To Be Amused"(1906), A Fantasy of Man: Henry Lawson, Complete Works, 1901-1922, Lansdowne, Sydney, 1984, pages 269-270.



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