The Asianisation of Australia: volume 2, part 3



Part Three


The Asian Population in Australia




In determining the ethnic-Asian proportion of the population, the best solution would be for such information to be gathered in a census. However, the Australian government, via the Australian Bureau of Statistics, no longer gathers such information. Nonetheless, it may be of interest to note the results of the race question in previous censuses.

In the tables below, results from the 1933, 1947, 1954, 1961, and 1966 censuses are given. 1966 was the last census in which detailed racial origins were published; after 1976 the census stopped asking a "race" question altogether (except for the continuing question re. Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders). Also below, detailed information from the 1961 census is given, which lists the Australian population by race, in "full- blood" and "mixed-blood" categories.

Contemporary statistics are also provided, regarding the estimation of the current ethnic-Asian population in Australia.



TABLE 19

POPULATION BY RACE:
AUSTRALIA, CENSUSES, 1933 TO 1966
(51)


RACE (a):                   1933      %         1947      %         1954      %


EUROPEAN (b):            6 579 993  98.883   7 524 129  98.960   8 921 691  98.988

NON-EUROPEAN (c):

Asian:
Afghan                         246                 220                 214
Arab, Persian                  115                 150                 301
Asiatic Jew                    216                 135                  83
Asiatic (n.e.i.)                77                  31               1 014
Chinese                     14 349              12 094              15 558 
Cingalese, Burgher, Tamil      350                 254                 391
Filipino                       390                 449                 428
Indian, Pakistani            3 098               2 898               2 647
Indonesian, Javanese,
   Timorese, etc.              111                 269                 381
Japanese                     2 466                 335                 785
Malay                        1 129                 974               1 234
Siamese, Thailander             13                  35                 266
Syrian, Lebanese             3 182               1 898               2 489

Total Asian                 25 742   0.387      19 742   0.260      25 791   0.286


Pacific Islander:
Fijian                          70                 178                  99
Maori                          197                 249                 257
Pacific Islander
   (n.e.i.)              (d) 1 822           (d) 5 583               2 212
Papuan, New Guinean            247                  34                  53
Torres Strait Islander         (e)                 (e)               4 362

Total Pacific Islander       2 336   0.035       6 044   0.080       6 983   0.077


African:
African (n.e.i.)               (f)                 (f)                  72
Egyptian                        16                  42                  72
Negro                          330                 254                 204

Total African                  346   0.005         296   0.004         348   0.004


Mixed blood (g)                (f)       -         (f)       -         (f)       - 
Other and Indefinite       (h) 802   0.012   (h) 1 968   0.026     (i) 358   0.004


Total Non-European
(excluding Aborigines)      29 226   0.439      28 050   0.369      33 480   0.371


Australian Aborigines (j)   45 066   0.677      51 048   0.671      57 722   0.640

Total Non-European
(including Aborigines)      74 292   1.116      79 098   1.040      91 202   1.012

Grand Total              6 654 285  100.00   7 603 227  100.00   9 012 893  100.00



RACE (a):                        1961     %           1966     %


EUROPEAN (b):              10 418 761  98.809   11 453 375  98.740


NON-EUROPEAN (c):

Asian:
Afghan                            217                   89
Arab, Persian                     596                1 321
Asiatic Jew                       114                  243
Asiatic (n.e.i.)                1 346                2 636
Chinese                        23 568               26 723
Cingalese, Burgher, Tamil         891                1 679
Filipino                          693                  765
Indian, Pakistani               4 065                4 411
Indonesian, Javanese,
   Timorese, etc.                 678                  818
Japanese                        2 671                3 573
Malay                           1 705                1 749
Siamese, Thailander               276                  562
Syrian, Lebanese                3 457                4 855

Total Asian                    40 277   0.382       49 424   0.426


Pacific Islander:
Fijian                            181                  257
Maori                             449                  862
Pacific Islander
   (n.e.i.)                     2 915                3 005
Papuan, New Guinean               206                  502
Torres Strait Islander          5 217                5 403

Total Pacific Islander          8 968   0.077       10 029   0.086


African:
African (n.e.i.)                  105                  601
Egyptian                          103                  425
Negro                             251                  102

Total African                     459   0.004        1 128   0.010


Mixed blood (g)                   (f)       -        4 812   0.041
Other and Indefinite          (i) 549   0.005          523   0.004


Total Non-European
(excluding Aborigines)         50 253   0.477       65 916   0.568


Australian Aborigines (j)      75 309   0.714       80 207   0.691


Total Non-European
(including Aborigines)        125 562   1.191      146 123   1.259


Grand Total                10 544 323  100.00   11 599 498  100.00

Notes:
(a) Racial categories, as well as the following notes, are those as stated in the Census table.
(b) Persons of over 50 per cent European race.
(c) Persons of more than 50 per cent of the race specified, or of 50 per cent of the race specified and 50 per cent European.
(d) Includes Torres Strait Islander.
(e) Included in Pacific Islander n.e.i.
(f) Included in "Other and indefinite".
(g) Persons of three or more races where no race represents more than 50 per cent, or persons of two non-European races each of which represents 50 per cent.
(h) Includes African n.e.i. and mixed blood.
(i) Includes mixed blood.
(j) Includes people who reported themselves as being more than 50 per cent Aboriginal or simply as Aboriginal.
(n.e.i.) - not elsewhere included.




TABLE 20

POPULATION ACCORDING TO RACE
AUSTRALIA, 30TH JUNE, 1961 CENSUS
(52)


                                 Full-Blood           Mixed-Blood:
Race (a)                       Non-European       European and (c)                Total


Asian:
   Afghan                                99                    118                   217
   Arab, Persian                        555                     41                   596
   Asiatic Jew                          101                     13                   114
   Asiatic (n.e.i.)                   1 118                    228                 1 346
   Chinese                           20 382                  3 186                23 568
   Cingalese, Burgher, Tamil            663                    228                   891
   Filipino                             297                    396                   693
   Indian, Pakistani                  3 532                    533                 4 065
   Indonesian, Javanese,
      Timorese, etc.                    539                    139                   678
   Japanese                           1 718                    953                 2 671
   Malay                              1 063                    642                 1 705
   Siamese, Thailander                  240                     36                   276
   Syrian, Lebanese                   3 241                    216                 3 457

   Total Asian                       33 548                  6 729                40 277


Pacific Islander:
   Fijian                               138                     43                   181
   Maori                                194                    255                   449
   Pacific Islander (n.e.i.) (b)      2 186                    729                 2 915
   Papuan, New Guinean                  130                     76                   206
   Torres Strait Islander             4 972                   2 45                 5 217

   Total Pacific Islander             7 620                  1 348                 8 968


African:
   African (n.e.i.)                      84                     21                   105
   Egyptian                              76                     27                   103
   Negro                                132                    119                   251

   Total African                        292                    167                   459


Other and Indefinite                    120                    429                   549


Total non-European (excluding
   Australian Aboriginal)            41 580                  8 673                 50 253


Australian Aboriginal                36 137                 39 172                 75 309


Grand Total                          77 717                 47 845                125 562

Note: The 1961 Census estimated that there were a further 3 944 Full-Blood Aboriginals that were not counted as they were "out of contact at Census".
(a) Racial categories, as well as the following notes, are those as stated in the Census table.
(b) Includes Pacific Islander, Polynesian and South Sea Islander so described.
(c) This category covers persons with European blood to the extent of one-half and blood of a Non- European race to the extent of one-half.
(n.e.i.) = not elsewhere included.




TABLE 21

POPULATION ACCORDING TO RACE
FIGURES AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE AUSTRALIAN POPULATION
(As at 30th June, 1961)


Asians:                                                      40 277       0.38%
Other Non-Europeans (excluding Australian Aborigines):        9 976       0.09%
Total Non-Europeans (excluding Australian Aborigines):       50 253                    0.48%

Europeans:                                               10 418 761                   98.77%

Australian Aborigines (Half-Blood):                          39 172       0.37%
Australian Aborigines (Full-Blood):                          40 081       0.38%
Total Australian Aborigines:                                 79 253                    0.75%

Total Australian population (excluding
Aboriginal Full-Bloods):                                 10 508 186      99.62%

Total Australian population:                             10 548 267                  100.00%

Note: This table is a summarisation of the 1961 census information, as provided by the preceding two tables.




TABLE 22

ETHNO-EUROPEAN AND ETHNO-ASIAN
MIGRATION TO AUSTRALIA
(As at 1978)


Dr. Charles Price has estimated the numbers of ethno-Europeans born outside of Europe that have migrated to Australia (as at 1978):(53)

UNITED KINGDOM:
(From Asia) 100 Turkey, 250 Lebanon-Syria, 3172 Palestine, 55185 India, 2292 Pakistan, 482 Bangladesh, 6132 Sri Lanka, 4935 Burma, 20 Thailand, 8833 Malaysia, 873 Philippines, 626 Indonesia, 161 East Timor, 150 Indochina, 67274 China etc., 5646 Japan, 465 Korea, 1850 Other Asia = 158,446.
(From elsewhere) 359 Egypt, 6307 Mauritius, 37693 South Africa, 11827 Other Africa, 10540 British West Indies, 616 Spanish America, 5481 Papua New Guinea, 9819 Fiji, 15668 Pacific, 94 At Sea = 98,404.

SOUTH EUROPE:
(From Asia) 500 East Timor, 500 India, 500 Sri Lanka, 437 China, 3875 Philippines, 1200 Turkey = 7,012.
(From elsewhere) 17742 Egypt, 1515 Africa, 1225 British West Indies, 42501 Spanish America, 1350 Portugese America = 64,333.

EAST EUROPE:
(From Asia) 3116 Palestine, 6500 China = 9,616.

WEST/NORTH EUROPE:
(From Asia) 196 Palestine, 500 Lebanon-Syria, 5250 Sri Lanka, 8800 Indonesia, 75 Thailand, 750 Indo-China = 15,571.
(From elsewhere) 107 Egypt, 7500 South Africa, 5500 Mauritius, 1260 Other Africa, 1950 British West Indies, 5425 Pacific, 2000 Papua New Guinea = 23,742.


TOTALS:

From Asia
190,645

From elsewhere
186,479

Total
377,124




Dr. Charles Price has also estimated the numbers of ethno-Asians born outside of Asia that have migrated to Australia (as at 1978):

WEST ASIA:
(From Europe) 250 Cyprus.
(From elsewhere) 1750 Egypt.

SOUTH ASIA:
(From Europe) 300 United Kingdom,
(From elsewhere) 935 Mauritius, 375 South Africa, 1000 Other Africa, 1300 Fiji, 190 Pacific, 35 Papua New Guinea = 3,835.

SOUTH-EAST ASIA:
(From Europe) n/a.
(From elsewhere) 100 Other Africa, 100 Papua New Guinea = 200.

EAST ASIA:
(From Europe) n/a.
(From elsewhere) 50 Mauritius, 15 South Africa, 10 Other Africa, 10 Spanish America, 10 British West Indies, 1400 Papua New Guinea, 250 Fiji, 195 Pacific = 1,940.


TOTALS:

From Asia
550

From elsewhere
7,725

Total
8,275



It should be noted that the above information relates to the period before the massive influx of immigrants from the Asian region in the 1980s and 1990s; and that the ethno-European influx from Asia was largely an historical event that occurred during the 1940s to 1960s due to various political and social factors, such as the overthrow or dismantling of the European colonial governments in Asia and other parts of the Third World.
It should also be noted that the above information relates not only to first generation immigrants, but also to their offspring.





TABLE 23

ASIAN BIRTHS IN AUSTRALIA, 1978-1988
(54)


     Mother   Father born in Asia; mother born elsewhere:
    born in                                                Pacific  Not     Father
Year   Asia:  Africa  America    (Asia) Australia  Europe  Islands  stated  Sub-Total    Total

1978   8399       74       40    (6176)      1384     471       72       2      2043    10 442
1979   9263       74       41    (6858)      1522     439       79       -      2157    11 420
1980   9948       87       42    (7417)      1478     464       78       -      2149    12 097
1981  11212       68       58    (8214)      1553     481       87       -      2247    13 459
1982  12396       76       49    (8868)      1755     491       89       -      2460    14 856
1983  13298       77       47    (9175)      1642     477       91       -      2334    15 632
1984  13384       79       49    (9267)      1560     414       92       -      2194    15 578
1985  15127       92       60   (10254)      1716     441      110       1      2420    17 547
1986  14916       86       67   (10130)      1805     457      100       -      2515    17 431
1987  16276       92       61   (11058)      1867     414      101       -      2535    18 811
1988  17709       80       70   (12229)      1887     475      132       3      2647    20 356




Summary

          Mother          Father born in Asia,                 "Father" increase over
          born in Asia:   mother born elsewhere:      Total:   "Mother" figures; %

1978              8 399                    2 043      10 442                  24.3
1979              9 263                    2 157      11 420                  23.3
1980              9 948                    2 149      12 097                  21.6
1981             11 212                    2 247      13 459                  20.0
1982             12 396                    2 460      14 856                  19.8
1983             13 298                    2 334      15 632                  17.5
1984             13 384                    2 194      15 578                  16.4
1985             15 127                    2 420      17 547                  16.0
1986             14 916                    2 515      17 431                  16.9
1987             16 276                    2 535      18 811                  15.6
1988             17 709                    2 647      20 356                  14.9

1978-1986       141 928                   25 701     167 629                  18.1

Notes:
a) All years listed are calendar years: January 1st to December 31st.
b) "Asia" includes "West Asia", except that Cyprus has been included in "Europe".
c) The "Asia" category for "Father born in Asia; mother born elsewhere" section has not been added to the sub-total or total, so as not to double-count births already included in the "Mother born in Asia" section.




TABLE 24

ESTIMATED ASIAN POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA
(From the 1996 Census)
(Including statistical workings)

See tables 24-A to 24-E




TABLE 24-A


ESTIMATED ASIAN POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA
(at the time of the 1996 Census)

Total of mother born in Asia              328 177
minus father/mother both born in Asia    -237 553
                                         = 90 624

Total of father born in Asia              318 677
minus father/mother both born in Asia    -237 553
                                         = 81 124

Father and mother both born in Asia       237 553

Total second generation                                   409 301

Persons born in Asia                                    1 008 327

Allowance for Census net undercount,
at 2% of above totals (1 417 628)(55)                      28 353

Net allowance for subtracting ethnic-Europeans
born in Asia (and their offspring) and adding
approximate population of "other ethnic-Asians"
(3rd generation, etc.)(56*)                                169,674


TOTAL ESTIMATE OF ASIAN POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA:        1 615 655


Ethnic-Asian percentage of the Australian population
(estimated at 18,289,100 at 30 June 1996)(57*)  =   8.8%
(56*)



TABLE 24-B


1996 Census
Persons born in Asia:(58)

West Asia            152,183
Southeast Asia       456,460
Northeast Asia       254,186
Southern Asia        145,498

Total              1,008,327


Note: Excludes overseas visitors.




TABLE 24-C


1996 Census
Australian-born offspring of persons born in Asia (by father):(59)

                            Birthplace of father:

Birthplace                  West       S.E.       N.E.       S.
of mother:                  Asia       Asia       Asia       Asia          Total

Australia                   14 670     18 153      9 542     16 014        58 379
New Zealand                    445        527        185        330         1 487
Melanesia                       11        142        241         41           435
Micronesia                       4          -          9          -            13
Polynesia                      114        138        126        318           696
U.K. and Ireland             1 321      2 492        951      3 319         8 083
Southern Europe              1 657        481        163        405         2 706
Western Europe                 726      1 304        335        572         2 937
Northern Europe                 77         54         39         63           233
Eastern Europe                 379        122        136        141           778
Former USSR and
Baltic States                  214         34        200         54           502
West Asia                   89 303         63         66        195        89 627
Southeast Asia                 437      78 421     3 817      1 903        84 578
Northeast Asia                 181       3 424    34 071        125        37 801
Southern Asia                  238         645        79     25 395        26 357
Northern America               205         137        61         99           502
South America                  380         120        37         70           607
Central America                 38          28         3         15            84
Caribbean                       28          16         9         19            72
North Africa                   634          36        12         49           731
Central and West Africa        155           4         -          6           165
Southern and East Africa       200         193        59        340           792
Inadequately described,
at sea, and n.e.c.             174          82        35         55           346
Not stated                     320         262        81        103           766

Total                      111 911     106 878    50 257     49 631       318 677

Notes:
(a) Excludes persons whose place of usual residence on Census night was overseas.
(b) Polynesia excludes Hawaii.
(c) "n.e.c." is an abbreviation of "not elsewhere classified"




TABLE 24-D


1996 Census
Australian-born offspring of persons born in Asia (by mother):(60)

                            Birthplace of mother:

Birthplace                  West       S.E.       N.E.       S.
of father:                  Asia       Asia       Asia       Asia          Total

Australia                    6 240     30 937      8 500     10 572        56 249
New Zealand                    142      1 149        314        273         1 878
Melanesia                        8        164        258         21           451
Micronesia                       -          3          -          -             3
Polynesia                       30        126         93        184           433
Europe n.f.d.                    -          5          3          -             8
U.K. and Ireland               666      6 592      1 577      3 124        11 959
Southern Europe              1 119      2 812        526        560         5 017
Western Europe                 470      3 577        623        716         5 386
Northern Europe                 25        333         60         58           476
Eastern Europe                 585        812        327        147         1 871
Former USSR and
Baltic States                  220        103        524         50           897
West Asia                   89 303        437        181        238        90 159
Southeast Asia                  63     78 421      3 424        645        82 553
Northeast Asia                  66      3 817     34 071         79        38 033
Southern Asia                  195      1 093        125     25 395        26 808
Northern America               102        298        112        146           658
South America                  147        194         46         47           434
Central America                 16         31          7          4            58
Caribbean                       20         27          8          8            63
North Africa                   918        184         62         42         1 206
Central and West Africa        212         34          3         18           267
Southern and East Africa       111        346         86        355           898
Inadequately described,
at sea, and n.e.c.             123        188         55         63           429
Not stated                     517      1 088        197        181         1 983

Total                      101 298    132 771     51 182     42 926       328 177

Notes:
(a) Excludes persons whose place of usual residence on Census night was overseas.
(b) Polynesia excludes Hawaii.
(c) "n.e.c." is an abbreviation of "not elsewhere classified"
(d) "Europe n.f.d." is an abbreviation of "Europe and former USSR not further defined"




TABLE 24-E


1996 Census
Birthplace of mother and father (both born in Asia): (61)

                            Birthplace of mother:

Birthplace                  West       S.E.       N.E.       S.
of father:                  Asia       Asia       Asia       Asia          Total

West Asia                   89 303        437        181        238        90 159
Southeast Asia                  63     78 421      3 424        645        82 553
Northeast Asia                  66      3 817     34 071         79        38 033
Southern Asia                  195      1 093        125     25 395        26 808

Total                       89 627     83 768     37 801     26 357       237 553




The Asianisation of Australia:
Statistics (Immigration, Ethnicity, and Trade) (Volume 2)

Australian Nationalism Information Database - www.ausnatinfo.angelfire.com